2008/06/09

Kasuri Ikat

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Kasuri Ikat Patterns 絣ダルマ模様
絣(かすり)とだるまさんの模様





Throughout the Edo period (1600-1868) the Tokugawa Shogunate issued strict sumptuary laws regarding the textiles for use by urban merchants. Forbidden to wear heavy brocades and damasks, 17th-century merchants and their wives turned to the dyers, who were soon producing textiles to rival the finest woven products in style, variety, skill, and sheer expense.

Silk kosode made of tiny-pointed tie-dye (kanoko 鹿の子) and yuzen, a composite painting technique employing rice-paste resist, characterized the mid-Edo period. Recently domesticated cotton, as well as asa stripes, checks, stencil and paste resist (katazome 型染め) and
hazy-patterned ikat (kasuri 絣) textiles were typical of the late 18th and 19th centuries.
quote from
Overview of Woven and Dyed Textiles
source : museum/textile

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quote
Kasuri (Ikat)
These ikat fabrics are made by selectively binding and dyeing parts of the warp or weft threads, or even both, before the fabric is woven. It is an arduous and exacting process. For either silk or cotton fabrics, the threads are stretched on a frame, selected design areas are bound, then the hanks of bound threads are immersed in the dye pots.
(Photo)
For warp ikats (as shown below), it's the warp threads that are bound and dyed. The fabric is woven with plain wefts, as all of the patterning is in the warps. The irregular, feathery design outlines are a characteristic feature, where the dye seeps under the bindings slightly. In contrast, vertical pattern lines are crisp and smooth.


For weft kasuri, more juggling is possible. It's the wefts that are bound selectively and dyed, and the weaver has a little freedom in positioning the dyed pattern areas exactly during the weaving process. This makes quite complex motifs possible. It presumes, however, that the bindings were done with much care and precision. Fabric ornamentation with elaborate weft-ikat motifs is known as "picture kasuri," or e-gasuri 絵絣. Sometimes the warps are printed or painted before the final weaving process. The fabric below appears to combine techniques.
(Photo)
For meisen ikat 銘仙,  both warp and weft are bound and dyed. Distinctive effects are produced by combining or crossing the resisted areas.

For detailed descriptions of these processes, I recommend
Jun and Noriko Tomita's, Japanese Ikat Weaving
London, 1982
source : www.marlamallett.com



The various Japanese techniques of tying and dyeing warps before weaving are explained in great detail in this small book. The authors assume that the reader has basic weaving knowledge. Both warp and weft kasuri techniques are described:
Tegukuri Gasuri, Surikomi Gasuri, Itajime Gasuri, Orijime Gasuri, Hogushi Gasuri, Kushi-Oshi Gasuri, Fukiyose Gasuri, and Bokashi Gasuri.
Both natural and synthetic indigo processes are described.

source : Books on Japanese Textiles

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The Kasuri Ikat Collection of Jeff Krauss








© Ikat Collection of Jeff Krauss

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絣(だるまさんに幾何学模様)
old piece of Matrial from the Nishiguchi Collection


© kofu-nishiguti.com

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Dark blue indigo robe with Daruma pattern





© sensyo


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Iyogasuri, Iyo Kasuri 伊予絣 Ikat from Iyo
A speciality from the region of Iyo, Ehime Prefecture 愛媛県, especially Matsuyama City.


Heart-warming Handmade Design Iyo-kasuri is said to have originated over 190 years ago when Kana Kagiya watched the changing of a straw-woven roof of a farmer's house and came up with the idea of using shapes similar to the ones left imprinted on the old roof by bamboo upholding it, in the design for cloth.

Iyo-gasuri is created through the following painstaking processes:

seikei 整経 - formatting the number and the length of vertical and horizontal threads;
seiren 精錬 - boiling the threads in hot water for about half a day to strengthen them;
kukuri 括り - threading together the parts to be dyed;
senshoku  染色 - dying each thread with natural indigo;
ori  織り - weaving the threads into high quality cloth.

The long and elaborate processes are what give the iyo-kasuri its distinctive look, and allow people to enjoy the warmth of the spirit of the craft.
source : www.ehime-iinet.or.jp


立秋の紺落ち付くや伊予絣
risshuu no kon ochitsuku ya Iyogasuri

the dark blue
is relaxing at the beginning of autumn -
ikat from Iyo


. Natsume Soseki 夏目漱石 .


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San-In-gasuri 山陰絣 (San-in no Kasuri)




. San-In-gasuri 山陰絣 San-In Kasuri -
Ikat from Tottori 鳥取県 - Introduction .

広瀬 Hirose, 倉吉 Kurayoshi and 弓浜 Yumihama.

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..... Kimono, Yukata, Nagajuban 着物、浴衣、長じゅばん



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2 comments:

Gabi Greve - Darumapedia said...

orimono 織物 weaving - somemono 染物 dyeing

introduction

Gabi Greve said...

Fowler in Focus:
Japanese Pictorial Ikats from the Krauss Collection

January 8–June 24, 2012

Sake-swilling imps, Buddhist saints in the form of pop-up dolls, turtles trailing seaweed as longevity symbols—welcome to the engaging imagery of Japanese e-gasuri, or “picture ikat” cloth. Japanese weavers, like their counterparts in South, Southeast, and Central Asia, mastered the art of ikat, or the resist-dyeing of patterns into yarn before it is woven into cloth. Kasuri is the name of a rustic type of Japanese ikat cloth, almost always dyed deep blue with indigo. E-gasuri designates kasuri cloth with pictorial motifs.
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http://www.fowler.ucla.edu/exhibitions/fowler-focus-japanese-pictorial-ikats-krauss-collection
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